Ukljucite javascript
Register Log in

Archive > Year 2007, Number 1

Body Fluid Loss During Four Consecutive Beach Handball Matches In High Humidity And Environmental Temperatures


Chryssanthopoulos Costas, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Science, University of Athens
Diafas Vasilios, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Science, University of Athens
Karras Dimitrios, University of Athens


The present study investigated the fluid losses that occur in beach handball (BH) when ambient temperature (T) and humidity (H) are high (T > 28 oC; H > 80%). Seven female handball (HB) players who belonged to different first division Greek HB teams took part in an international BH tournament as members of a BH team. In the tournament the players played 4 consecutive matches within two days. During the warm-up, match, and half-time every player ingested one litre of water. Body fluid losses (BFL) were 0.6-0.8 l whereas when BFL were corrected for fluid intake these values were 1.6-1.8 l respectively. When fluid intake was not taken into account, BFL corresponded to about 1% - 1.4% of body mass (BM). When fluid intake was considered, the BFL corresponded to 2.8% - 3.2% of BM. Beach handballers are advised to practice drinking in training so that they will be able to consume fluid during matches that is about 2% of their BM when humidity and temperatures are high. This practice will assist players to avoid excessive hypohydration and maintain body fluid balance.


beach handball, fluid intake, fluid loss, females

Download full article


  1. American College of Sports Medicine (1996). Position Stand: Exercise and fluid replacement. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 28(1): i-vii.
  2. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada (2000). Joint Position Statement: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 32(12): 2130-2145.
  3. Broad E. M., Burke L. M., Cox G. R., Heeley P., & Riley M. (1996). Body weight changes and voluntary fluid intakes during training and competition sessions in team sports. Int. J. Sport Nutr., (6): 307-320.
  4. Brouns F., Saris W. H. M., & Rehrer N. J. (1987). Abdominal complaints and gastrointestinal function during long-lasting exercise. Int. J. Sports Med., 8: 175-189.
  5. Burke L. M., & Hawley J. A. (1997). Fluid balance in team sports. Guidelines for optimal practices. Sports Med., 24(1): 38-54.
  6. Delamarche P., Gratas A., Beillot J., Dassonville J., Rochcongar P., & Lessard Y. (1987). Extent of lactic anaerobic metabolism in handballers. Int. J. Sports Med., 8(1): 55-59.
  7. Graig F. N., & Cummings E. G. (1966). Dehydration and muscular work. J. Appl. Physiol., 21(2): 670-674.
  8. Hoffman J. R., Stavsky H., & Falk B. (1995). The effect of water restriction on anaerobic power and vertical jumping height in basketball players. Int. J. Sports Med., 16(4): 214-218.
  9. Jeukendrup A. & Gleeson M. (2004). Sports Nutrition. An introduction to energy production and performance (pp. 175 – 176). Champaign, IL., USA: Human Kinetics.
  10. Loftin M., Anderson P., Lytton L., Pittman P., & Warren B. (1996). Heart rate response during handball singles match-play and selected physical fitness components of experienced male handball players. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness, 36(2): 95-99.
  11. Montain S. J. & Coyle E. F. (1992). Influence of graded dehydration on hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol., 73(4): 1340-1350.
  12. National Weather Service (2001). “Heat index”. National Weather Service Birmingham, Alabama, USA;
  13. Sawka M. N., & Pandolf K. B. (1990). Effects of body water loss on physiological function and exercise performance. In: Gisolfi C. V., & Lamb D. R. (Eds.). Fluid homeostasis during exercise. Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Benchmark Press Inc.,3: 1-38.
  14. Soares J. M. C. (1988). Telemetrical study of handball goal-keeper’s heart rate during official and non-official competitions in the attack and defense phases. J. Sports Med., 28: 220-223.