Ukljucite javascript
Register Log in

Archive > Year 2020, Number 4

Match without the audience - Competition without performance


Milošević Miloš


The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically affects all aspects of organizing sporting events. The question raises whether sports competition can be possible without the audience, and what is the value of sports results if spectators do not attend and witness them? The aim of this paper is to analyze the observed problem within the theoretical framework of the performance studies, namely the theory of Erika Fischer-Lichte. Also, the aim of this paper is to introduce theoretical postulates of theatre and performance studies to sports researchers because they have great potential for application in the analysis of sport and its social role and characteristics. It was concluded that by abolishing the bodily co-presence of the audience and athletes autopoietic feedback loop is broken and the competition loses its performance properties, which is why sports results achieved without the presence of the audience cannot be valued in the same way as those achieved in front of the audience. The analysis lays the foundation for future empirical research as well as event organising and broadcasting practise improvement.


Bodily co-presence, autopoietic feedback loop, performance studies, COVID-19, event organisation

Download full article


  1. Carlson M. Performance: A critical introduction. London: Routledge, 1996.
  2. Fischer-Lichte E. The Routledge introduction to theatre and performance studies. London: Routledge, 2014.
  3. Fischer-Lichte E. Performance as event – reception as transformation. In E. Hall & S. Harrop (Eds.). Theorising performance: Greek drama, cultural history and critical practice, (pp. 29–42). London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2010. DOI:
  4. Fischer-Lichte E. The transformative power of performance - A new aesthetics. London: Routledge, 2008.
  5. Fischer-Lichte E. The semiotics of theater. Bloomington and Indianapolis: University of Indiana Press, 1992.
  6. Grotowski J. Towards a poor theatre. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968.
  7. Hanaei S, Takian A, Majdzadeh R, Maboloc C, Grossmann I, et al. Emerging standards and the hybrid model for organizing scientific events during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Disaster Med Public Health Prep, 2020; 1-17. DOI:10.1017/dmp.2020.406.
  8. Herrmann M. Über die Aufgaben eines theaterwissenschaftlichen Instituts. in H. Klier (ed.),Theaterwissenschaft im deutschsprachigen Raum (pp. 15–24). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellchaft, 1981.
  9. Jovićević A, Vujanović A. Uvod u studije performansa. Beograd: Fabrika knjiga, 2007. (in Serbian)
  10. Medenica I. Vidovdan i njegove izvedbe - 1989-2014. Zbornik radova Fakulteta dramskih umetnosti, 25-26: 233-252, 2014. (in Serbian)
  11. Milošević M, Pantelić N, Ratković T. The psychological basis behind new media as an impetus behind the reduction in physical activity. International Scientific Conference on Information Technology and Data Related Research, SINTEZA 2020, (pp. 253 - 258.). Beograd: Singidunum University, 2020. DOI: 10.15308/Sinteza-2020-253-258.
  12. Milošević M, Antonijević V. Primena kvantitativnih metoda u analizi filmskih, medijskih i dramskih tekstova. Kultura, 2020; 166:302-315. DOI: 10.5937/kultura2066302M. (in Serbian)
  13. Milošević M. Srpski film u doba novih medija (2010-2016). Beograd: Fakultet dramskih umetnosti, 2019. (in Serbian)
  14. Milošević M, Ristić I. Kreativnost u sportu – nov pristup istraživanju. International Scientific Conference on Information Technology and Data Related Research, SINTEZA 2018, (pp. 267-274). Beograd: Singidunum University, 2018. DOI:
  15. Milošević M, Ristić I. New methodology approach to creativity studies. In Medias Res, 2016; 5(8):1237-1250.
  16. Rajnelt Dž. Politika i izvođačke umetnosti. Beograd: Univerzitet umetnosti u Beogradu, 2012. (in Serbian)
  17. Schiavio A, Gesbert V, Reybrouck M, Hauw D, Parncutt R. Optimizing performative skills in social interaction: Insights from embodied cognition, music education, and sport psychology. Front Psychol 2019; 10:1542.
  18. Schechner R. Restoration of behavior. Studies in Visual Communication 1981; 7(3):2-45.
  19. Turner V. The anthropology of performance. Cambridge MA: PAJ Publications, 1986.